Learn Digital Logic and Microprocessor Design with VHDL

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Digital Logic and  Microprocessor Design  with VHDL  (soon with Verilog)- Enoch O. Hwang, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA. This book will teach students how to design digital logic circuits, specifically combinational and sequential circuits. Students will learn how to put these two types of circuits together to form dedicated and general-purpose microprocessors. This book is unique in that it combines the use of logic principles and the building of individual components to create data paths and control units, and finally the building of real dedicated custom microprocessors and general-purpose microprocessors. After understanding the material in the book, students will be able to design simple microprocessors and implement them in real hardware. 

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Free Electrical Book

3:03 AM
Electrical based ebooks are in great demand these days. However if you search hard enough, there’s a lot of freely available online resources out there which you can take advantage of. Here are a few (do leave your comments if you know of others):-
* Note: Some of the PDF’s listed down here might be too big in size to be viewed directly from your browser. Unless you have a very fast connection or just want to take a peek or view it briefly, I’d suggest right clicking and saving it straight to your computer for each of the ebooks under the PDF category.
  1. Electrical Facilities Safety (PDF)
  2. Electronics Tutorials (HTML)
  3. Op Amp Circuit Collection (PDF)
  4. Digital Logic basics (HTML)
  5. 555 timer circuits (HTML)
  6. Handbook of operational amplifier applications (PDF)
  7. Electromagnetic Fields and Energy (free college textbook online) (HTML)
  8. Classical Electromagnetism by Richard Fitzpatrick (HTML)
  9. Directory of Ebooks by Pacontrol.com – 54 ebooks (PDF)
  10. Electrical Science (PDF)
  11. Lazar’s power electronics guide (HTML & PDF)
  12. Electric Motor Controls  Tutorials (PDF)
  13. gerbv – A Free/Open Source Gerber Viewer (Software)
  14. PCB – interactive printed circuit board editor for the X11 window system (Software)
  15. Programmable Controllers Theory and Implementation (PDF)
  16. Automating Manufacturing Systems with PLCs (PDF) – 11MB
  17. More PLC stuffs – Basics, Glossary, Laws (PDF)
  18. Process Control Fundamentals (PDF)
  19. Ebooks from Texas Instruments (Source: SMPS.US)
  20. Lessons In Electric Circuits (Posted before, but worth re-mentioning) – HTML & PDF
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PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C

7:03 PM

PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C | What are microcontrollers, anyway? Electronics built in one single chip capable of controlling a small submarine, a crane or an elevator… It’s up to you to decide what you want them to do and dump a program containing appropriate instructions into the chip.

Title: PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C
Author: Milan Verle
Paperback: 336 pages
Publisher: mikroElektronika; 1st edition (2009)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-86-84417-17-8
Paperback Color: Two Color
Covers Color: Full Color
Buy print book including CD:
Price: $24.00 USD
Buy Now
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Numerical Analysis For Differential Equation Solution

1:25 PM
1. Introduction
Differential equations play an important role in many problem of engineering and science. This is so because of the involvement of differential equation in the mathematical models. It naturally leads to the determination of solution numerically. The use of the numerical methods have become vital in the absence of explicit solutions. Normally numerical methods have two major roles:
(a) the method should be implementable on a computer;
(b) the method should deal with the analysis of error estimates.
For the present we deal with some of the numerical methods to solve initial value problems (IVP's) (on finite intervals). We also mention that no effort is made to study boundary value problems. Let us consider an initial value problem.
Full Reference...
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Papers About Theory of planned behavior

3:39 PM
TPB posits that individual behavior is driven by behavioral intentions where behavioural intentions are a function of an individual's attitude toward the behaviour, the subjective norms surrounding the performance of the behavior, and the individual's perception of the ease with which the behavior can be performed (behavioral control). Attitude toward the behavior is defined as the individual's positive or negative feelings about performing a behaviour. It is determined through an assessment of one's beliefs regarding the consequences arising from a behavior and an evaluation of the desirability of these consequences. Formally, overall attitude can be assessed as the sum of the individual consequence x desirability assessments for all expected consequences of the behavior. Subjective norm is defined as an individual's perception of whether people important to the individual think the behavior should be performed. The contribution of the opinion of any given referent is weighted by the motivation that an individual has to comply with the wishes of that referent. Hence, overall subjective norm can be expressed as the sum of the individual perception x motivation assessments for all relevant referents. Behavioral control is defined as one's perception of the difficulty of performing a behavior. TPB views the control that people have over their behavior as lying on a continuum from behaviors that are easily performed to those requiring considerable effort, resources, etc. Although Ajzen has suggested that the link between behavior and behavioral control outlined in the model should be between behavior and actual behavioural control rather than perceived behavioural control, the difficulty of assessing actual control has led to the use of perceived control as a proxy.

abstract paper share

Source: Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Publishers.

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Electrical Pdf Ebook

3:18 AM

Topical worksheets

Together, these worksheets constitute a body of questions far too large to be comprehensively covered in any single electronics course. That is not the point, though. This collection is purposely oversized so you may pick and choose enough questions to meet your specific teaching needs. Download those worksheets containing questions you wish to use, and then only assign those questions to your students for research and discussion. The rest may be ignored, or your students may find them useful as study aids outside of class.

Although I strive to make each of these worksheets self-contained, some topics will (necessarily) assume coverage of prior topics. For instance, it would be impossible for a beginning student to understand a worksheet on series-parallel resistor circuits without first having understood Ohm's Law.


  • Index of question files: [Plain-text]
  • How to turn any breadboarded circuit into a valid troubleshooting assessment: [PDF]
  • Student surveys (for regular inclusion in worksheets/exams): [PDF]
  • Questions relating to project management: [PDF]
  • Test page for adjustment of copy machine: [Encapsulated PostScript] [PDF]

Printed Circuit Boards:

  • Gerber files for 2x3 inch breadboard PCB (.zip archive): [ZIP]
  • Schematic diagram for simple 10-resistor series troubleshooting circuit: [PDF]
  • Gerber files for 4x4 inch troubleshooting PCB of a simple 10-resistor series circuit (.zip archive): [ZIP]
  • Schematic diagram for loaded voltage divider troubleshooting circuit: [PDF]
  • Gerber files for 4x4 inch troubleshooting PCB of a loaded voltage divider circuit (.zip archive): [ZIP]
  • Schematic diagram for quarter-active Wheatstone bridge troubleshooting circuit: [PDF]
  • Gerber files for 4x4 inch troubleshooting PCB of a Wheatstone bridge circuit (.zip archive): [ZIP]

Basic electricity:

  • Atomic structure: [PDF]
  • Static electricity: [PDF]
  • Voltage, Current, and Resistance: [PDF]
  • Conductors and insulators: [PDF]
  • Elementary circuits: [PDF]
  • Electrical connections: [PDF]
  • Soldering: [PDF]
  • Sources of electricity: [PDF]
  • Physical effects of electricity: [PDF]
  • Resistors: [PDF]
  • Switches: [PDF]
  • Basic voltmeter use: [PDF]
  • Basic ammeter use: [PDF]
  • Basic circuit troubleshooting: [PDF]
  • Ohm's Law: [PDF]
  • Energy, work, and power: [PDF]
  • Electric shock: [PDF]
  • Arc flash and arc blast: [PDF]
  • Safety grounding: [PDF]
  • Lock-out / Tag-out: [PDF]
  • Wire types and sizes: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Telegraph system [PDF]
  • Magnetism: [PDF]
  • Basic electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction: [PDF]
  • Basic relays: [PDF]
  • Series DC circuits: [PDF]
  • Parallel DC circuits: [PDF]
  • Basic ohmmeter use: [PDF]
  • Specific resistance: [PDF]
  • Temperature coefficient of resistance: [PDF]
  • Batteries: [PDF]
  • Overcurrent protection: [PDF]
  • Basic troubleshooting strategies: [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for basic electricity: [PDF]

DC electric circuits:

  • Voltage divider circuits: [PDF]
  • Current divider circuits: [PDF]
  • Kirchhoff's Laws: [PDF]
  • Potentiometers: [PDF]
  • Series-parallel DC circuits: [PDF]
  • Voltmeter design: [PDF]
  • Ammeter design: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Voltmeter [PDF]
  • DC bridge circuits: [PDF]
  • DC metrology: [PDF]
  • Magnetic units of measurement: [PDF]
  • Intermediate electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction: [PDF]
  • Capacitance: [PDF]
  • Capacitors: [PDF]
  • Inductance: [PDF]
  • Inductors: [PDF]
  • Time constant circuits: [PDF]
  • Time constant calculations: [PDF]
  • DC transducers (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • DC generator theory: [PDF]
  • DC motor theory: [PDF]
  • Design Project: DC motor [PDF]
  • DC motor control circuits: [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for DC: [PDF]

AC electric circuits:

  • AC waveforms: [PDF]
  • Basic oscilloscope operation: [PDF]
  • Peak, average, and RMS measurements: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Four-channel audio mixer [PDF]
  • AC phase: [PDF]
  • Inductive reactance: [PDF]
  • Capacitive reactance: [PDF]
  • Impedance: [PDF]
  • Trigonometry for AC circuits: [PDF]
  • Phasor mathematics (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Series and parallel AC circuits: [PDF]
  • Resonance: [PDF]
  • Series-parallel combination AC circuits: [PDF]
  • Mixed-frequency signals: [PDF]
  • Decibel measurements: [PDF]
  • Passive filter circuits: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Audio tone control [PDF]
  • Passive integrator and differentiator circuits: [PDF]
  • Oscilloscope trigger controls: [PDF]
  • Mutual inductance: [PDF]
  • Step-up, step-down, and isolation transformers: [PDF]
  • Autotransformers: [PDF]
  • Impedance matching with transformers: [PDF]
  • Advanced electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction: [PDF]
  • Electrical noise and interference (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Design Project: Sensitive audio detector [PDF]
  • AC power: [PDF]
  • Characteristic impedance: [PDF]
  • AC transducers (PENDING): [PDF]
  • AC metrology: [PDF]
  • Polyphase power systems: [PDF]
  • Delta and Wye 3-phase circuits: [PDF]
  • AC generator theory: [PDF]
  • AC motor theory: [PDF]
  • AC motor control circuits: [PDF]
  • Microphones (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Fundamentals of radio communication (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for AC: [PDF]

Network analysis techniques:

  • Component modeling: [PDF]
  • Superposition theorem: [PDF]
  • Thevenin's, Norton's, and Maximum Power Transfer theorems: [PDF]
  • Millman's theorem: [PDF]
  • Simultaneous equations for circuit analysis: [PDF]
  • DC branch current analysis (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • DC mesh current analysis (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • AC network analysis: [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for network analysis (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]

Discrete semiconductor devices and circuits:

  • Electrical conduction in semiconductors: [PDF]
  • PN junctions: [PDF]
  • Electron versus Conventional flow: [PDF]
  • Rectifying diodes: [PDF]
  • Rectifier circuits: [PDF]
  • Basic AC-DC power supplies: [PDF]
  • Design Project: AC-DC power supply [PDF]
  • Design Project: Dual-output AC-DC power supply [PDF]
  • Design Project: Simple component curve-tracer circuit [PDF]
  • Clipper and clamper circuits: [PDF]
  • Miscellaneous diode applications: [PDF]
  • Zener diodes: [PDF]
  • Special diodes (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Elementary amplifier theory: [PDF]
  • Bipolar junction transistor theory: [PDF]
  • Bipolar junction transistors as switches: [PDF]
  • Bipolar junction transistors in active mode: [PDF]
  • Bipolar transistor biasing circuits: [PDF]
  • Regulated power sources: [PDF]
  • Design Project: DC voltage regulator [PDF]
  • Class A BJT amplifiers: [PDF]
  • Class B BJT amplifiers: [PDF]
  • Class C BJT amplifiers (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Design Project: Audio power amplifier [PDF]
  • BJT amplifier troubleshooting: [PDF]
  • Junction field effect transistors: [PDF]
  • JFET amplifiers: [PDF]
  • Insulated gate field effect transistors: [PDF]
  • Insulated gate bipolar transistors (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • IGFET amplifiers (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Conventional transistor overview and special transistors (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Active loads in amplifier circuits (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Optoelectronic devices: [PDF]
  • Differential transistor amplifiers: [PDF]
  • Multi-stage transistor amplifiers: [PDF]
  • Oscillator circuits: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Radio transmitter [PDF]
  • Thyristors: [PDF]
  • Thyristor application circuits: [PDF]
  • Signal modulation (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Power conversion circuits: [PDF]
  • Fiber optics (PENDING): [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for semiconductors: [PDF]

Analog integrated circuits:

  • IC fabrication and packaging (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Printed circuit board layout and manufacture (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Design Project: LED stroboscope [PDF]
  • Design Project: Signal generator [PDF]
  • Basic operational amplifiers: [PDF]
  • Open-loop opamp circuits: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal generator [PDF]
  • Negative feedback opamp circuits: [PDF]
  • Positive feedback opamp circuits: [PDF]
  • Inverting and noninverting opamp voltage amplifier circuits: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Intercom system [PDF]
  • Design Project: Audio media-based signal generator [PDF]
  • Design Project: Sensitive microphone amplifier [PDF]
  • Summer and subtractor opamp circuits: [PDF]
  • Voltage/current converter opamp circuits (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Linear computational circuitry: [PDF]
  • Servo motor systems (PENDING): [PDF]
  • Precise diode circuits: [PDF]
  • AC negative feedback opamp circuits: [PDF]
  • Opamp oscillator circuits: [PDF]
  • Active filters: [PDF]
  • Logarithms for analog circuits: [PDF]
  • Nonlinear opamp circuits: [PDF]
  • Phase-locked loops (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for analog integrated circuits: [PDF]

Digital circuits:

  • Design Project: Logic probe [PDF]
  • Digital logic signals: [PDF]
  • Basic logic gates: [PDF]
  • Numeration systems: [PDF]
  • Binary arithmetic: [PDF]
  • Digital codes: [PDF]
  • TTL logic gates: [PDF]
  • CMOS logic gates: [PDF]
  • Basic logic gate troubleshooting: [PDF]
  • Electromechanical relay logic: [PDF]
  • Time-delay electromechanical relays: [PDF]
  • Protective relay circuits (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Boolean algebra: [PDF]
  • Sum-of-Products and Product-of-sums expressions: [PDF]
  • Karnaugh mapping: [PDF]
  • Binary math circuits: [PDF]
  • Encoders and decoders: [PDF]
  • Multiplexers and demultiplexers: [PDF]
  • Digital display circuits: [PDF]
  • Programmable logic technology: [PDF]
  • Latch circuits: [PDF]
  • Timer circuits: [PDF]
  • Flip-flop circuits: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Light-pulse switch [PDF]
  • Design Project: Power inverter [PDF]
  • Counters: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Event counter [PDF]
  • Shift registers: [PDF]
  • Design Project: Arbitrary waveform generator [PDF]
  • Digital-to-Analog conversion: [PDF]
  • Analog-to-Digital conversion: [PDF]
  • Switched capacitor circuitry: [PDF]
  • Digital communication (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Memory devices: [PDF]
  • Finite state machines (PENDING): [PDF]
  • Microprocessor function (PENDING): [PDF]
  • Microprocessor programming (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Microcontroller principles (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Programmable logic controllers (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • High-reliability circuits (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Stepper motors (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Design Project: Stepper motor driver [PDF]
  • Performance assessments for digital: [PDF]

Mathematics for electronics:

  • Scientific notation and metric prefixes: [PDF]
  • Basic algebra and graphing for electric circuits: [PDF]
  • Algebraic equation manipulation for electric circuits: [PDF]
  • Algebraic substitution for electric circuits: [PDF]
  • Logarithms for analog circuits: [PDF]
  • Simultaneous equations for circuit analysis: [PDF]
  • Trigonometry for AC circuits: [PDF]
  • Phasor mathematics (INCOMPLETE): [PDF]
  • Calculus for electric circuits: [PDF]

Circuit animations:

Math animations:

Bellingham Technical College students ("Core" Electronics course worksheets):

DC Electric Circuits

ELTR100 (DC 1), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR100 (DC 1), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR100 (DC 1), Section 3: [PDF]

ELTR105 (DC 2), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR105 (DC 2), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR105 (DC 2), Section 3: [PDF]

AC Electric Circuits

ELTR110 (AC 1), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR110 (AC 1), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR110 (AC 1), Section 3: [PDF]

ELTR115 (AC 2), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR115 (AC 2), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR115 (AC 2), Section 3: [PDF]

Discrete Semiconductor Circuits

ELTR120 (Semi 1), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR120 (Semi 1), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR120 (Semi 1), Section 3: [PDF]

ELTR125 (Semi 2), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR125 (Semi 2), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR125 (Semi 2), Section 3: [PDF]

Operational Amplifier Circuits

ELTR130 (Opamps 1), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR130 (Opamps 1), Section 2: [PDF]

ELTR135 (Opamps 2), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR135 (Opamps 2), Section 2: [PDF]

Digital Circuits

ELTR140 (Digital 1), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR140 (Digital 1), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR140 (Digital 1), Section 3: [PDF]

ELTR145 (Digital 2), Section 1: [PDF] ELTR145 (Digital 2), Section 2: [PDF] ELTR145 (Digital 2), Section 3: [PDF]
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